One of the greatest mysteries that mankind faces is the perplexing question of where do we come from? What are our common origins and how did we come to be as we are? Scientists and theologians have long struggled to provide and answer, but in reality no one actually knows. What is taught today and what is generally perceived of as scientific fact about our history, origins and distant evolutionary past, is nothing more that scientific guess work; an elaborate set of theories that many believe are finally unraveling.

In the last few decades both the orthodox view of our early prehistory and that of our ancient past have been severely challenged.  Researchers like Graham Hancock,  author of Fingerprints of the Gods, have provided plenty of evidence to support the theory that an advanced global civilization existed prior to 12,000 BC rather than the accepted chronology of civilization beginning with Sumer and Egypt some 4000BC. 

Yet as radical as this theory is, it pales into insignificance compared to the findings of Michael Cremo and Richard Thompson in their books Forbidden Archaeology and the Hidden History of the Human Race. Here the authors compile thousands of cases of archaeological finds that provide convincing evidence that anatomically modern humans were present on the earth not just for 100,000 years, as is currently believed, but for millions of years. If Cremo and Thompson are correct then the entire model of human prehistory, including of course theDarwinian theories of human origins, will have to be completely rejected.




The traditional scientific view of how we came to be what we are now revolves  entirely around the theory of evolution, first developed by Charles Darwin in The Origin of the Species (1859) and later in the Descent of Man (1871). Darwin’s theory,  although fiercely controversial at the time, provided a practical scientific model based on observation of the past, which challenged the widely held religious or biblical explanation of  our origins. From that time on debate into human origins has been broadly split into Creationists on one side who maintain that humanity has a divine origin and Darvinists who believe all life evolved over billions of years from single celled creatures to the complex life forms we see today. Darwin’s theory effectively usurped the supreme being as the creator of man with the belief that accidental changes, or mutations, are the driving force behind evolution, a process that is further driven by natural selection or survival of the fittest. 

Darwin theorized that humans and apes shared a common ancestor that lived somewhere in the depths of prehistory. It is now thought by anthropologists that this ape like creature, allegedly our earliest living relative, probably appeared around 20 million years ago. Around 4 million years ago - Australopithecus, the first hominid or erect walking human like primate- began to appear.  After this a number of different hominid  lines appeared until the first true Homo Sapiens made their entrance some 300,000 years ago. Finally Cro Magnon, our most contemporary descendent appeared around 100,000 years ago in South Africa.




Unfortunately this neat chronology of humanities origins has, according to Cremo and Thompson, been assembled at the expense of a vast amount of data that was either rejected or actively suppressed. “ There has been a massive cover up over the last 150 years”, explains Thompson “ where archaeologists have hidden as much evidence from the public as they have dug up.” The authors maintain that this has occurred because of what they call a ‘ knowledge filter’ something they believe is a fundamental feature of science and human nature, which involves researchers suppressing, ignoring or being ignorant of data that contradicts the dominant paradigm.

Although evidence for out of place or anomalous artifacts has been presented before, Forbidden Archaeology is by far the most comprehensive and scholarly volume ever published. In this massive tome Cremo and Thompson collate thousands of cases from around the world of recovered artifacts as well as bones from anatomically modern humans which have been discovered in strata dating back millions and even billions of years. Some of the finds include: The discovery in 1849 of primitive stone tools and fragments of anatomically modern bones in Table Mountain, Tuolumne, California.  The artifacts were examined by J.D Whitney, the state geologist and consisted of a variety of implements including spear heads and a stone mortar. What made the discovery so remarkable was that later analysis showed that some of the rock strata containing the artifacts was as old as 55 million years.  




In Dorchester, Massachusetts a metallic vase was recovered from strata in Precambrian rock. The vase was decorated with flower motifs in inlaid silver. Cremo states ‘By standard accounts, life was just beginning to form on this planet during the Precambrian age, over 600 million years ago. But in the Dorchester Vessel we have evidence indicating the presence of artistic metal workers in North America over 600 hundred million years beforeLeif Erikson. ( The Viking explorer who allegedly discovered America) 

Perhaps even more puzzling was the discovery by South African miners of hundreds of metallic spheres, at least one of which has three parallel groves running around it’s equator. Roelf Marx, the curator of the museum of Klerksdrop, where they are housed stated “ The spheres are a complete mystery. They look man-made, yet at the time in Earth’s history when they came to rest in this rock ( around 2.8 billion years ago) no intelligent life existed. They’re like nothing I have ever seen before.” 





A variety of possible explanations have been put forward to account for these  remarkable anomalies including Cataclysmic Geology which theories that rock strata have not been deposited slowly over millions of years but rather quite suddenly during a cataclysmic event. Rock strata and any fossils deposited in this manner would give the false impression of extreme antiquity when in fact they could be millions of years younger. Another theory includes an attack on the scientific means of dating which relies on the often unreliable method of measuring the amount of radioactive decay in archaeological samples. Cremo, however believes none of these theories can account for the evidence he and Thompson have uncovered. Instead, based largely on his studies of the Vedic texts- the ancientSanskrit writings of India, he resorts to a complex metaphysical version of the creationist position to explain human origins and it’s presence millions of years before the earliest hominids appeared. 

According to Vedic philosophy, whose content dates back to at least 3000BC, human civilizations have risen to great heights and fallen back into decay repeatedly over a vast period of time. The duration of the grand Vedic cycle, called the ‘Day of Brahmin’ is some 4.3 billion years. It is during this period that all life is brought into existence by a process of spiritual creation and emanation. According to Sanskrit calendars the world today is around 2 billion years into this cycle, a figure Cremo believes corresponds with the earliest evidence indicating a human presence on the planet at this period of remote antiquity .  

In assessing human origins Cremo believes it is first necessary to ask the pivotal question of what constitutes a human being? “ If you start with the scientific assumption that humans are composed of ordinary matter you are severely restricted in the  explanations you can offer as to how we got here. What I suggest is that we didn’t evolve up from matter, we devolved down from spirit”. Cremo, in line with much of the discoveries of  the ‘new physics’,  rejects the central pillar of scientific materialism which  believes humans are composed of nothing but brute matter, suggesting instead that we are composed of a combination of matter, mind an spirit. Mind he defines as “ subtle but nevertheless material energy that can act on matter”. ( such as experimental proof of various Psi abilities like psychokinisis.) While spirit refers to ‘ the conscious self that can exist apart from matter and mind.’  From Cremo’s position any investigation into human origins has to answer the essentially metaphysical question components come together?  “ The answer to this is going to be extremely complicated” he states “and people usually want simplistic explanations”. Cremo outlines the three most fundamental theories of human origins as:

1) Instantaneous creation by God. The universal creation story.

2) The scientific or Darwinian account of evolution.

3) The extraterrestrial hypothesis: That evolution continued up to the point of one of the late hominids which was then genetically altered by ETs into Homo Sapiens.

In Cremo’s view all three explanations have played their part in an immensely complex tapestry of creation events. “ I do believe in an overall guiding intelligence but I don't think it was a matter of instantaneous creation”. Rather he maintains that living beings including humans are manifest in the universe by a process of what he calls ‘devolution’. He states “ This is a process whereby original spiritual essences, which belong to a spiritual level of reality, are attracted to lower energies and become covered first by mind, then by matter. This covering takes the form of physical bodies that are produced by a process of ‘descent by modification’ ”. ( a process analogous to Darwinian evolution but  spiritually initiated and directed.). From the Vedic position the creation of all life forms is presided over by a hierarchy of higher intelligences or what in the great wisdom traditions are referred to as gods and goddess. “ It is these beings “ Cremo states “ that allow the modification of life to take place, using a form of  intelligently guided genetic engineering.” Cremo criticizes science and Darwinism for not being able to explain either how life began on earth or how it developed from simple into immensely complex forms claiming that only the action of higher intelligences can account for this. 



Vedic literature is full of descriptions of higher forms of intelligence interacting with humans. This could take the form of higher dimensional beings or visitations from other planets. Cremo however distinguishes between what he calls vertical and horizontal contacts with non human intelligence. Vertical describes contact between beings ofdifferent dimensions and horizontal between beings on the same plane such as visitations of beings from other worlds. 

As for the theory presented by Zecharia Sitchin and others, which claims that humans were created by the Annunaki, an extraterrestrial group, which conducted genetic manipulation of already evolving hominids, Cremo does not reject this theory entirely but insists it is far too simplistic. According to Sitchin’s interpretation of Sumerian mythology, the genetic modification occurred some 400,000 years ago, “since we have uncovered evidence of the human presence dating back millions and billions of years,” states Cremo “ an explanation for human origins cannot lie in this one event. The Vedic literature talks about multiple ET and extradimentional contacts which involved the production of living beings, including humans, over a huge period of time,  not just the single incident which Sitchin posits.”

The world’s mythologies are full of tales of how certain human blood lines are the result off procreation either with gods, meaning higher dimensional beings, or with people from other planets. A good example of this is outlined in detail in the Japanese ‘Takenouchi Documents’ allegedly the world’s oldest records. These contain a detailed history of the world and humankind, and like the Vedic literature describe a time when humans interacted with interdimentional beings and extraterrestrials. They describe the origins of the widespread belief in Japan that the ancient lineage of the Empirical family was the result of procreation from the gods.  





If the Vedic descriptions of ancient history are correct and highly advanced cultures did flourish  millions of years ago, why have no high technology artifacts ever been discovered? Cremo believes there are a number of possible explanations. “ I think the most important reason is no one is looking for them. In Roman times when people would find ancient stone tools they would call them Thunderstones and believed they were produced by the gods when lightening struck the earth. It was only 150 years ago when the  scientific world view was adopted that people started looking for these objects and could place them in some sort of context. You are not necessarily going to find something unless you’re looking and want to find it.” Secondly Cremo believes that these ancient cultures may have had a very different type of technology. “They may had ways of transporting themselves without metal machines” he states “ one based more on the manipulation of subtle or paranormal forces or of sound and at a level beyond our present comprehension. Ancient cultures frequently talk about creating through spells and mantras.”

In Vedic literature reference is made to the Vimanas or aerial vehicles that the gods used and which, although usually powered by and composed of some form of subtle energy, some were reportedly made from metal. “ The problem with finding any high-tech evidence is that if it is made from metal it oxidizes, corrodes and disappears fairly rapidly . If you add to this the fact that 95% of the of the sedimentary layers that have ever been deposited on the earth are now gone, you can see the problems.”





The collective weight of the new evidence presented in Forbidden Archaeology creates a formidable challenge to both Darwinists and orthodox Creationists. The picture that is emerging is far from complete, yet it is one that is shockingly different from the widely accepted scientific paradigm, offering instead the possibility that man has made the climb from stone age to civilization many times in the ancient past. As Graham Hancock summarizes: “ I’m convinced we are a species with amnesia. We’ve forgotten something of great importance from our own past. When we recover it, we will realize for a start our civilization isn’t the apex of creation, the pinnacle toward which everything has been building throughout geological time. Rather it is part of an up and down flow. It is possible for a civilization to reach a very high level and yet be wiped out. This is something that has never before been confronted.”



Anthropologist maintain that Cro Magnon man after appearing in Southern Africa around 100,000 years ago, migrating to other parts of the world and reached South America as early as 15,000 years ago. However artifacts, detailed in Forbidden  Archaeology, have been found that are so old they completely contradict this theory. In 1966 Dr. Virginia Steen-Mcintyre a geologist working for the US Geological Survey discovered a series of man made spear points in rock strata dated at 250,000 years ago, at a location near Mexico City. Solid evidence that man existed in this area an amazing 235,000 years earlier that anyone imagined. When she naïvely published her results instead of taking her  evidence seriously the scientific establishment set out to destroy her career. She never worked as a professional geologist again. Such stories, claim Cremo and Thompsom, are not uncommon and help illustrate the lengths orthodox science will go in order to preserve their view of history. 



One of the most dramatic and bizarre cases clearly showing our incomplete picture of the past, was featured on the NBC TV documentary based on Cremo and Thompson’s work, entitled The Mysterious Origins of Man. While excavating in the Peluxi river in Texas, anthropologist Dr. Carl Baugh discovered the fossilized tracks of a dinosaur  which had left these impressions in the mud some 100 million years ago. What made the find so controversial was the discovery of a set of human footprints 18 inches away  from the dinosaur tracks and in the same strata. “ We excavated 12 prints in a series going from left to right” stated Baugh “ and we found both human and dinosaur prints continuing under the Limestone ledges. This along with the scientific analysis we carried out proves beyond any reasonable doubt that the foot prints are not hoaxed and are anatomically identical to modern humans. ” 



At the Peluxi River site Dr. Baugh also found a fossilized human finger in the same strata containing human and Dinosaur prints, namely from 100 million years ago. The finger appeared anatomically modern with nail and cuticle. A CAT scan revealed the internal image of the fossilized bones which the researchers maintained eliminated a possible hoax. But perhaps the most perplexing discovery of all was that of an iron hammer with a wooden shaft.  “ This is clearly a man made artifact.” states Baugh,  “ yet it was discovered in the same strata as the dinosaur tracks. We analyzed the metal and it was found to be a combination of Iron, Sulfur and Chlorine, in a combination impossible to fabricate today.Also a portion of the handle has turned into coal. For this to happen you need sustained heat and high pressure, so this proves that it was placed there when the original rock formed.” Cremo who, although uncertain what to make of the fossilized finger, concluded that find of the hammer was genuine and there was no evidence of a hoax.




Richard Milton, author of Shattering the Myths of Darwinism, believes that the Darwinian view of man having descended from apes is totally bogus. “ This is a scientific interpretation of the evidence it is not a fact, and there are other interpretations. In Darwin’s view man and apes are said to share a common ancestor, but evidence  of that common ancestor is highly controversial, which is why it’s called the missing link. Darwin’s followers still have to provide this evidence and yet frequently claim to have found it. However this always turns out to be either human or ape. In a century of looking the missing link is still missing.” Natural History Museums around the world display the replicated remains of ‘Lucy’ a female hominid which scientists claims is the closest thing to the missing link. Yet Cremo points out that many anthropologists have stated that the remains are hardly distinguishable from an ape or monkey and that Lucy is just another extinct ape.



The orthodox scientific view is that at one time Cro Magnon man and various more primitive hominids such as Neanderthal, Australopithecus and Homo Erectus all co-existed in the same areas, with the hominids eventually becoming extinct.  Cremo and Thompson present evidence in their book The Hidden History of the Human Race that far from dying out some of these hominids lines have managed to survive to the present day and are what are described in the many accounts of so called ‘wild men’. Often called Bigfoot in the US, the Yeti in the Himalayas and Sasquatch in Canada. Although the idea that an unknown species of hominids could have survived and currently inhabit their own ecological niche, may be shocking the authors point out that Cryptozoologists ( the study of hidden animals ) have on occasions been able to examine live captured specimens and observe them in the wilderness. It appears as if this more primitive hominid, unable to compete,  long ago abandoned the habitats occupied by humans and found a niche in remote and less hospitable regions such as the forests, deserts and mountains.




Tim Coleman has been working as a professional journalist for over thirty years. He has been published in a huge range of magazines and newspapers around the world including: The Guardian, The Independent, FHM Magazine, The Face, Focus, Sky, Skin and Ink, Wienner, Tatowier (Germany) Enigmas (Spain), UFO Magazine (UK and US) X-Factor, Encounters, Kindred Spirit and many more.
"As well as earning a living from being a freelance journalist, I have always found journalism to be the perfect medium to explore subjects that I'm passionate about. This not only allows me to enter deeply into the subject through the research, but it also provides me the honor of meeting key players in that field ."
Tim Coleman
Here is a small selection of my work.